Extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB) is a rapidly growing technology that has made substantial progress
during the last decade. It has great versatility in printing various biologics, including cells, tissues,
tissue constructs, organ modules and microfluidic devices, in applications from basic research and
pharmaceutics to clinics.
Despite the great benefits and flexibility in printing a wide range of bioinks, including tissue spheroids,
tissue strands, cell pellets, decellularized matrix components, micro-carriers and cell-laden hydrogels,
the technology currently faces several limitations and challenges. These include impediments to organ
fabrication, the limited resolution of printed features, the need for advanced bioprinting solutions to
transition the technology bench to bedside, the necessity of new bioink development for rapid, safe
and sustainable delivery of cells in a biomimetically organized microenvironment, and regulatory
concerns to transform the technology into a product.
This paper, presenting a first-time comprehensive review of EBB, discusses the current advancements
in EBB technology and highlights future directions to transform the technology to generate viable end
products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.